Producing electricity through an ecological system is possible thanks to the wind turbine, even for individuals. Environmentally friendly, wind energy uses the force of the wind, 100% natural and renewable. Producing electricity using this device therefore does not draw on the planet’s reserves.
In addition, a home wind turbine can be used equally well to supply energy to a house, urban accommodation, a holiday home, a caravan, a camper van, an isolated dwelling. Depending on the needs, it will power a single outlet or the whole house. Indeed, the capacity is variable according to the model, going from 100 W to 20 kW; the materials, as well as the size of the mast, also vary accordingly. And to gain energy and therefore autonomy, it is possible to combine it with another ecological electricity production system, such as solar photovoltaic
1.The energy of a wind turbine
The energy of a home wind turbine is not comparable to that of Giant generators of power companies that we see flourish( horizontal wind turbines ). Its proportions, as well as the quantity of electricity produced, are adapted to the needs of users. Thus, depending on its proportions, the energy of a domestic wind turbine can cover almost all of a family’s electrical needs or be content to supply a few outlets, or even simply take over in the event of a power failure.
2.Produce energy, what is the process ?
The wind turbine uses the mechanical energy of the winds to spin a rotor, much like old windmills. This rotor is itself connected to a generator, which produces electricity, which must then be regulated to make it usable.
3.Which type do I need to use, vertical or horizontal axis wind turbine?
A wind turbine includes a system for capturing the wind coupled to an electricity generator (like a dynamo): technically we speak of a wind generator.
It is divided into two categories, horizontal models and vertical models, which are distinguished by the orientation of their axis of rotation.
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1.Horizontal wind turbine
The horizontal wind turbine, or HAWT (“Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine”), basically works on the same principle as the wind turbines that can be seen in wind farms.
The horizontal wind turbine is the solution generally adopted for the large wind turbine. For an individual, it has two main advantages: first, it has a very good performance since it captures a maximum of energy thanks to its self-orientation which allows it to adapt to the direction of the wind; then, being more widespread.
The horizontal wind turbine responsible for many significant nuisances.
2.Vertical wind turbines
The vertical wind turbine is, for the moment, less widespread, but its performance equal to, or even superior to that of a conventional wind turbine, as well as its advantages of integration into the frame, of operation even with a weak wind and of occupancy. space makes it a very interesting solution, especially for home wind turbines.
Its main asset is its ability to pick up light winds, so it does not need strong gusts or winds, even strong, to operate, because it does not orient itself in relation to the wind.
Plus, it takes up less space and works regardless of the wind direction. Note that it may be more difficult to obtain a vertical axis wind turbine, as the market is still small.
The efficiency of a wind turbine
The efficiency is defined by the nominal and maximum power (in kW), the triggering threshold by the starting speed (in m / s), the average wind speed for its operation by the nominal speed of the generator (in m / s) s), and the electricity produced by the average annual production (in kWh)…
4.Wind turbine components
In order to be efficient, the domestic wind turbine
must pick up relatively strong.
To do this, it is necessary to
place high enough. Thus, the blades, and
sometimes the generator is located at
top of a mast or pylon: the
height varies from 10 to 35 m.
There are then two types of elements
allowing the installation of the blades in
height: mast and pylon.
The mast, a vertical rigid element, is generally reserved for wind turbines horizontal. Resistant, it must not
bend in the wind, and its structure does must not be able to be attacked by rust, fungi, mold …
This is why we use two types of materials: aluminum or a rust-resistant metal.
When designing, we start by deciding whether the mast will be installed on foundations or not: if the generator is located at the top, foundations are essentials.
In other cases, they are strongly recommended, because they allow ensuring its good anchoring in the ground. Thus, the wind turbine will not risk being uprooted by the wind.
The pylon, an assembly of vertical elements, serves
to support the wind turbine, whether horizontal or
vertical. Just like the mast, it must be finely
anchored in the ground to resist the winds.
Aluminum is the material of choice
for construction, because it is resistant and against rust.
The negative point of this technique concerns
high-rise home wind turbines, as
the pylon is not aesthetic, all the less when he is high.
The blades of the wind turbine are fixed at the top of the mast, whether it is a model
vertical or horizontal. Driven by the wind, their movement activates the
generator which thus produces electricity.
The blades of a wind turbine must offer performance, in order to capture as much wind as possible, and safety, for do not to create damage in the event of a fall.
The blades must therefore combine several qualities: aerodynamics, lightness and balance.